Comprehensive Guide To Vitamin B

Updated: Oct 13, 2020

Vitamin B is commonly used in fat burners for its vital role on the metabolism, and its ability to synthesize fat for energy. Vitamin B is an essential vitamin complex that can really help with fat / weight loss.


This is a comprehensive guide to vitamin B.


What Is Vitamin B?


Vitamin B is a complex of 8 water-soluble vitamins that play an essential role in metabolic functions, energy levels and brain function. Being water-soluble, they cannot be stored within the body, therefore a daily intake of vitamin B required. (1)


The vitamin B complex is made up of Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), Pantothenic Acid (B5), Pyridoxine (B6), Biotin (B7), Folate (B9) & Cobalamin (B12).


Vitamin B is sensitive to heat and therefore is destroyed when exposed to high temperatures.


History Of Vitamin B


Vitamin B was discovered in 1889 by a Dutch physician called Christiaan Eijkman, investigating an endemic condition named beriberi (meaning extreme weakness) in a country which is now known today as Indonesia. Beriberi caused symptoms of weakness, weight loss, confusion, and sometimes death. The disease was common in areas where white rice made up the majority of the residents' diets.


Eijkman conducted studies on chickens and found that those fed white rice developed symptoms similar to beriberi, while chickens given brown rice did not. This is because white rice is refined by going through processes called 'milling' and 'polishing' which inadvertently remove nutrients from the rice. Although today, most white rice is enriched with the nutrients lost. In America, it is required by law for white rice to be enriched with Vitamin B1, B3 and iron.


Brown rice is unrefined rice which has not been processed, therefore it retains all of its nutritional value. Higher in dietary fiber and many vitamins and minerals. Because of this, brown rice is known to be a healthier option.


The white rice craze beginning in the second half of the 19th century is what caused the beriberi epidemic in Asia. (2)


Thiamine (Vitamin B1)


Thiamine is needed for the production of energy from glucose, the transmission of electrical messages in nerves and muscle cells, and for the production of red blood cells. It is essential for the synthesis of some important amino acids and plays a role in digestion. It is also involved in the transportation of glucose intracellularly, and in the function of pancreatic beta-cells (which produce insulin), therefore it is important for people with diabetes. 3)


Benefits


Studies have shown thiamine may help older people who have low intakes of the vitamin to increase feelings of well-being, reduce fatigue, and boost appetite.


Vitamin B1 may have beneficial effects on mood, promoting calmness, clear-headedness and elation. Those with lower levels of thiamine are less likely to feel composed or self-confident and are more likely to suffer from depression than those with higher levels. Among healthy females low thiamine levels was associated with low mood. Thiamine supplementation after 3 months was associated with improved mood!


Thiamine appears to have a protective effect against over proliferation of artery linings with is linked with atherosclerosis. Lab tests on cell cultures suggest that adequate intake of thiamine may delay hardening and furring up of the arteries associated with high glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes.


Lab evidence suggest that vitamin B1 could help prevent diabetic retinopathy, however this needs further investigation in humans.


Thiamine deficiency


In some under-developed countries, thiamine deficiency is common where white rice is the dietary staple rather than brown rice. The lack of vitamin B1 results in beriberi. Dry beriberi effects the nervous system, causing symptoms of heaviness, weakness, numbness and pins and needles in the legs. Wet beriberi effects the cardiovascular system, causing extreme fluid retention and poor circulation.


Avid alcohol drinkers are at risk of developing thiamine deficiency, it is estimated that 80% of people who abuse alcohol will develop deficiency. Alcohol makes it harder for the body to process and absorb vitamin B1. Lack of thiamine with high alcohol intake is associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, which can then lead to irreversible dementia if left untreated.


Symptoms include:


• Loss of appetite

• Fatigue

• Irritability

• Pins and needles in legs

• Weakness

• Nausea and vomiting

• Delirium

• Abnormal heart rate


Sources of Thiamine


• Whole grains

• Oats

• Pasta

• Meat

• Seafood

• Nuts and pulses

• Yeast


How much do I need?


Children


Infants 0-6 months: 200mcg

Infants 7-12 months: 300mcg

Children 1-3 years: 500mcg

Children 4-8 years: 600mcg


Males


9-13 years: 900mcg

14 years and above: 1.2mg


Females


9-13 years: 900mcg

14-18 years: 1mg

18 years and above: 1.1mg

Pregnant women: 1.4mg

Breast-feeding women: 1.5mg


Side effects


High doses (5000mg or more) taken daily may cause side effects such as:


• Headache

• Nausea

• Irritability

• Insomnia

• Irregular heart rate

• Weakness


Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)


Vitamin B2 plays a major role in the metabolization of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. It acts as a building piece for the formation of a substance called flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) which is needed for maintaining the optimum activity of metabolic enzymes. One of these enzymes, glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, is essential in the way insulin-producing beta cells detect the presence of glucose within the pancreas. It has been suggested that a lack of vitamin B2 is linked to the development of type 2 diabetes. Vitamin B2 is also needed for the production of thyroid hormones and red blood cells. Riboflavin also acts as an antioxidant and helps the immune system by contributing to the production of antibodies. It helps to keep skin, hair, eyes, and mucus membranes healthy, and for optimal brain function. Those with adequate intakes of riboflavin have been found to be more likely to score higher in mental functioning tests than those with inadequate intake. (4)


Benefits


Vitamin B2 has a homocysteine-lowering effect in people who have inherited two copies of a gene associated with reduced activity of an enzyme called methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, which is needed for homocysteine metabolism.


Vitamin B2 may provide some protection against certain congenital abnormalities during early pregnancy.


Riboflavin plays an essential role in protecting against cataract formation (a condition which causes the eye lens to become opaque and cause blurred vision) it acts as a building block for the production of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) - a factor needed for optimum activity of an antioxidant enzyme, glutathione reductase. A study involving 1,380 contributors attending an ophthalmology outpatient clinic (a branch of medicine that studies and treats diseases and disorders of the eye), found that regular consumption of multivitamin supplements decreased the risk of developing cataracts by 37%, as well as adequate dietary intake, among other nutrients decreasing the risk.


A study involving 55 people suffering from migraine found that those taking a supplement of 400mg of riboflavin reduced the frequency of migraine and headaches was reduced by 50%.


Riboflavin deficiency


Senior people with low riboflavin intake may have reduced immunity due to the sub-optimal production of antibodies and are also at risk of developing cataracts.


Severe lack of vitamin B2 is rare among developed countries, but occasionally effects the

elderly and those with alcohol dependency or anorexia.


Symptoms include:


• Skin disorders

• Excess blood

• Lesions on the corner of the mouth

• Swollen / cracked lips

• Hair loss

• Sore throat

• Itchy / red eyes

• Degeneration of liver / nervous system


Sources of Riboflavin


• Yeast extract

• Whole grains

• Eggs

• Dairy products

• Green leafy vegetables

• Fortified foods


How much do I need?


Children


Infants 0-6 months: 300mcg

Infants 7-12 months: 400mcg

Children 1-3 years: 500mcg

Children 4-8 years: 600mcg


Males


9-13 years: 900mcg

14 years and above: 1.3mg


Females


9-13 years: 900mcg

14 years and above: 1mg

Pregnant women: 1.4mg

Breast-feeding women: 1.6mg


Side effects


• Itchy skin

• Numbness

• Pins and needles

• Noticeably yellower urine


Niacin (Vitamin B3)


Niacin exists in two forms - as nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Vitamin B3 can be made within the body in small amounts from the essential amino acid tryptophan. 60mg of tryptophan produces 1mg of niacin. Niacin combines with the mineral, Chromium to form the glucose tolerant factor (GTF). This is essential for the hormone insulin, in controlling the way glucose is taken up in the cells. Lack of vitamin B3 has been associated with impaired glucose tolerance which may lead to diabetes. Together with vitamin B1 and B2, B3 works symbiotically with them to release energy from muscle sugar stores (glycogen) and for the uptake and use of oxygen within cells. It also works on it's own to maintain healthy skin, nerves, intestines and brain function. (5)


Benefits


Niacin is prescribed to lower high cholesterol levels and can reduce the risk of heart attack by as much as 30%. It can lower harmful LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol and triglycerides. It is one of few treatments that can lower harmful fat known as apolipoprotein B (apoB) and apolipoprotein A (apoA). It works in the liver to reduce production of triglycerides and apoB, while also blocking the reactions that break down HDL cholesterol to increase levels by up to 20%. Niacin is recognised as the most effective treatment for increasing the beneficial HDL cholesterol. A 16 week trial study involving 148 people with diabetes were given slow-release niacin tablet daily showed up to a 24% increase in HDL cholesterol and up to a 28% decrease of triglycerides.


Optimum niacin intake can help prevent cataracts.


Niacin deficiency


Lack of niacin leads to a rare deficiency called pellagra, which can exist in two forms, primary pellagra is a result of insufficient niacin within the diet. Secondary pellagra is due to the bodies poor ability to to use niacin within the diet, which can be a result of alcoholism.


Symptoms include:


• Inflamed skin

• Diarrhea

• Dementia

• Sores in the mouth


Sources of Niacin


• Whole grains

• Fortified foods

• Nuts

• Meat

• Poultry

• Oily fish

• Eggs

• Dairy products

• Dried fruit

• Yeast extract


How much do I need?


Children


Infants 0-6 months: 2mg

Infants 7-12 months: 4mg

Children 1-3 years: 6mg

Children 4-8 years: 8mg

Children 9-13 years: 12mg

Males


Males 14-18 years: 16mg

Males 19 and above: 16mg


Females


Females 14-18 years: 14mg

Females 19 and above: 16mg

Pregnant females: 18mg

Breast-feeding females: 17mg


Side effects


In high doses, niacin can cause red flushing of the skin, comparable to blushing. A low dose (75mg-300mg) of aspirin can resolve this however.


Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)


Like other B vitamins, pantothenic acid plays a major role in energy-yielding metabolic reactions involving carbohydrate, lipids and protein. It is a significant key factor in the synthesis of glucose and fatty acids which are important fuel sources for muscles and may improve athletic performance, however this has not been proven. It has been suggested that vitamin B5 supplements may even help during weight loss by ensuring that the fatty acids that are released from fat stores are broken down properly. Vitamin B5 also plays a role in the production of adrenal hormones during times of stress and helps maintain a healthy nervous system. Other uses of vitamin B5 is it is taken to reduce nasal congestion, reduce stress, overcome chronic fatigue and indigestion and even as an aid to giving up smoking. Furthermore vitamin B5 can encourage healing of wounds by stimulating cell growth through increasing the number and speed of cells going into the wound, this also improves protein synthesis. This encourages strong scar tissue and helps rejuvenate skin. This healing function is why pantothenic acid derivatives are used to treat hepatitis A. In a study, vitamin B5 given to 156 people suffering from hepatitis A, found that their liver function improved and their blood antibody levels increased as well as the activity of white blood cells. Vitamin B5 is readily destroyed by cooking, which destroys up to 50% of vitamin B5 in meat. Up to 75% of vitamin B5 is lost in vegetables during processing. Freezing slowly destroys this vitamin too. (6)


Benefits


Vitamin B5 may improve symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. A study on young rats that were deficient in pantothenic acid showed abnormal growth and development of bone and cartilage - these defects were reversed by supplementing vitamin B5, which suggested their symptoms were caused by vitamin B5 deficiency. Blood levels of vitamin B5 are significantly lower in those with rheumatoid arthritis. However when vitamin B5 is supplemented the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis improves. Vitamin B5 is only effective with treating rheumatoid arthritis, not other forms of arthritis.


Pantothenic acid deficiency


Symptoms that may be caused by lack of pantothenic acid include:


• Weakness and fatigue

• Headache

• Difficulty coping with stress

• Poor muscle co-ordination and muscle cramps

• Numbness

• Loss of appetite

• Nausea

• Indigestion

• Abdominal cramps

• Painful and burning feet

• Increased susceptibility to infections

• Slowed wound healing

• Joint degeneration

• Insomnia

• Depression


Sources of Pantothenic Acid


• Whole grains

• Beans

• Vegetables

• Nuts

• Eggs

• Meat

• Yeast extract

• Royal jelly


How much do I need?


Children


Infants 0-6 months: 1.7mg

Infants 7-12 months: 1.8mg

Children 1-3 years: 2mg

Children 4-8 years: 3mg

Children 9-13 years: 4mg


Males


Males 14-18 years: 5mg

Males 19 and above: 5mg


Females


Females 14-18 years: 5mg

Females 19 and above: 5mg

Pregnant females: 6mg

Breast-feeding females: 7mg


Side effects


High doses may cause symptoms such as diarrhoea


Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)


Vitamin B6 is a group of compounds that includes pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. All of of them convert to the most active form, pyridoxine. Pyridoxine is an essential factor for over over 60 enzymes involved in the synthesis of genetic material, amino acids, proteins and the metabolization of essential fatty acids and carbohydrates. It is vital for the health of rapidly dividing cells such as those in the gut, skin, hair and bone marrow as well as those involved in the immune system. Pyridoxine increases the production of antibodies and the number and activity of T4-helper lymphocytes (white blood cells that initiates the immune system response and aids killer-T cells). (7)


Benefits


Vitamin B6 contributes to the break down of homocysteine - an amino acid which, when allowed to build up is a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and stroke. Homocysteine is formed from the breakdown of an amino acid, methionine. When B6 levels are at normal levels homocysteine is tightly controlled by three enzymes that convert homocysteine to cysteine - a safe compound used for cell growth. However when B vitamins are at insufficient amounts in the body this conversion cannot occur optimally, which allows the build-up of harmful amounts of homocysteine in the body. Taking folic acid (B9), pyridoxine (B6) and cobalamin (B12) supplements has been shown to lower homocysteine build-up, especially in senior people. Although pyridoxine is not as effective as folic acid or cobalamin at reducing homocysteine, it is still an important factor for the conversion.


Pyridoxine is involved in the synthesis of chemicals in the brain such as serotonin and GABA, which are vital for nerve function in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Pyridoxine deficiency may be a factor in the development of neuropathy in people suffering from diabetes. Studies suggest that people with diabetic neuropathy have lower levels of pyridoxine than those with diabetes who do not have neuropathy.


It's also been suggested that pyridoxine may help reduce retinopathy in people with diabetes.


Pyridoxine supplements may protect against kidney stones as it reduces the production of the chemical, oxalate, which is found in many kidney stones.


A study involving near 15,000 participants suggests that vitamin B6 may reduce the risk of colon cancer by up to 50%.


Pyridoxine Deficiency


Lack of vitamin B6 can cause symptoms such as:


• Mouth ulcers

• Cracked lips

• Red, inflamed tongue

• Burning skin

• Anaemia

• Headache


Sources of Pyridoxine


• Whole grains

• Liver

• Meat

• Oily fish

• Soy products

• Bananas

• Nuts

• Green leafy vegetables

• Avocado

• Egg yolk

• Yeast extract

• Royal jelly


How much do I need?


Children


Infants 0-6 months: 100mcg

Infants 7-12 months: 300mcg

Children 1-3 years: 500mcg

Children 4-8 years: 600mcg

Children 9-13 years: 1mg


Males


Males 14-18: 1.3mg

Males 19-50: 1.3mg

Males 51 and above: 1.7mg


Females


Females 14-18 years: 1.2mg

Females 19-50 years: 1.3mg

Females 51 and above: 1.5mg

Pregnant females: 1.9mg

Breast-feeding females: 2mg


Side effects


Prolonged high doses of vitamin B6 may cause reversible nerve symptoms such as pins and needles. Other symptoms at high doses include:


• Headache

• Acne

• Nausea

• Abdominal pain

• Loss of appetite

• Abnormal liver function


Biotin (Vitamin B7)


Vitamin B7 is a cofactor for five carboxylases that play critical roles in the metabolism of fatty acids, glucose and the amino acids, isoleucine and valine. Therefore it is essential for energy release from foods. Biotin also plays major roles in gene regulation, histone modifications and cell signaling. Biotin is mostly bound to proteins in food and sometimes in free form. The protein-bound forms of biotin are broken down through intestinal functions which are formed into biocytin and biotin-oligopeptides - which are further processed by an enzyme, biotinidase, to release free form biotin. This biotin is then absorbed in the small intestine, which is then stored in the liver. (8)


Benefits


Biotin may help maintain healthy nails, skin and hair. A study conduced on 45 patients who took 2.5mg supplements of biotin daily, 91% reported that they had "firmer and harder finger nails" after 5 months. Other studies concluded that supplementation of 2.5mg of biotin daily reduced the effects of brittle nail syndrome. Other research sources reported that the effects of thinning hair in women experienced abate of hair shedding.


Some studies have found that biotin has the ability to lower blood glucose in those with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In animal studies biotin was shown to stimulate secretion of insulin and therefore lower blood glucose.


Vitamin B7 may also help control neuropathy in those with diabetes and reduce nerve damage.


More studies have suggested that high-dose biotin supplements may have a therapeutic effect on those with multiple sclerosis by improving symptoms. (9)


Biotin deficiency


Although rare as biotin is readily found in many foods, symptoms of deficiency include:


• Thinning hair, leading to loss of all hair on the body

• Conjunctivitis

• Ketolactic acidosis

• Aciduria

• Seizures

• Skin infection

• Brittle nails

• Neurological disorders

• Hypotonia, lethargy and stunted development in infants


Sources of Biotin


• Meat

• Eggs

• Fish

• Seeds

• Nuts

• Certain vegetables (like sweet potato)


How much do I need?


Children


Infants 0-6 months: 5mcg

Infants 7-12 months: 6mcg

Children 1-3 years: 8mcg

Children 4-8 years: 12mcg

Children 9-13 years: 2mcg


Males


Males 14-18: 25mcg

Males 19 and above: 30mcg


Females


Females 14-18: 25mcg

Females 19 and above: 30mcg

Pregnant females: 30mcg

Breast-feeding females: 35mcg


Side effects


High doses of biotin is not toxic, however it may interact with some drugs, herbs and other supplements. It may also interact with certain medications including clozapine, haloperidol, olanzapine and others.


Folate (Vitamin B9)


Folate is essential in production of red and white blood cells, converting carbohydrates to energy and producing DNA and RNA. Because of it's vital role in the production of DNA and RNA, it is extremely important during pregnancy, infancy and adolescence. Low folate levels in pregnant women have been linked to birth abnormalities. Folic acid is a synthetic version of folate often used in supplements and processed foods. Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folate deficiency anaemia, help embryo development and reduce side effects from methotrexate. However, folic acid may pose health issues if taken in high amounts as not all of the vitamin is metabolized and converted to vitamin B9 - high levels of unmetabolized folic acid has been associated with health problems. (10) (11)


Benefits


Folate is essential for healthy embryo development and reducing the likelihood of congenital deformities and miscarriage. The NHS recommends to take folate / folic acid until you are 12 weeks pregnant. Research has shown that the folate content of the father before conception may be just as important for the babies health and development. A study conducted on rats showed a 30% higher congenital deformity rate in those that were folate-deficient than those who were not.


Low folate levels have been linked to depression and a lessened response to anti-depressant medications. Folate can help treat low mood, however it has not been suggested as a treatment itself for depression. Adequate levels of folate may improve response to anti-depressants.


Folic acid supplements may lower levels of homocysteine. Elevated levels of homocysteine has been linked to cardiovascular disease. Research has suggested that folic acid along with B12 may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin B complex supplementation including folate could also lower the risk of stroke.


Low levels of vitamin B9 has been associated with an increased risk of breast, colorectal, lung, pancreatic, esophageal, stomach, cervical, ovarian cancers among others.


Folate deficiency


Folate deficiency induced symptoms include:


• Fatigue

• Weakness

• Lethargy

• Pale skin tone

• Shortness of breath

• Irritability


Sources of Folate


• Asparagus

• Liver

• Beans and lentils

• Spinach

• Avocado

• Egg yolk

• Banana

• Mushrooms

• Broccoli


How much do I need?


Children


Infants 0-6 months: 65mcg

Infants 7-12 months: 80mcg

Children 1-3 years: 150mcg

Children 4-8 years: 200mcg

Children 9-13 years: 300mcg


Males


Males 14-18 years: 400mcg

Males 19 and above: 400mcg


Females


Females 14-18 years: 400mcg

Females 19 and above: 400mcg

Pregnant females: 600mcg

Breast-feeding females: 500mcg


Side effects


Folic acid in high doses has been associated with an increased risk of developing certain cancers. Dietary folate does not cause any adverse effects.


Cobalamin (Vitamin B12)


Cobalamin contains cobalt, the only requirement for this metal in the body. Unlike other water-soluble vitamins, enough vitamin B12 can be stored in the liver to last for several years. Vitamin B12 plays a key role in the formation of red blood cells, neurological functions and DNA synthesis. Vegetarians and especially vegans are at risk of developing vitamin B12 deficiency since it is mainly found in animal based foods. The only foods to contain consistent amounts of B12 is blue-green algae and fortified cereals. There is supplements that contain B12 made from bacteria and blue-green algae sources for vegetarians. Cobalamin is ingested in the lower part of the small intestines, but a special carrier protein, intrinsic factor, is needed for absorption. Intrinsic factor is made by acid producing parietal cells in the stomach lining. Deficiency can occur if insufficient intrinsic factor is produced, or if a bowel disease affects the lower intestines absorption. Lack of intrinsic factor can occur as a result of an auto-immune attack and when ageing parietal cells slow their production of both stomach acid and intrinsic factor. Lack of stomach acid is common in older people and reduces the absorption of several nutrients, including other B vitamins. Absorption of vitamin B12 is dependant on the presence of calcium, and some evidence suggests calcium supplements can improve B12 absorption. Cobalamin is needed together with folic acid when forming new genetic material. It is most needed in cells that have rapid turnover (constant shedding and replacement of new cells) such as hair follicle cells and in bone marrow.


Benefits


Cobalamin, along with folic acid helps control the levels of homocysteine in the blood. Supplementing B9 and B12 has shown to reduce homocysteine levels. Macular degeneration (a leading cause of blindness) is associated with excess homocysteine levels and taking folic acid and cobalamin supplements may help protect against this.


Together with folic acid, cobalamin protects against some congenital developmental disorders, such as spina bifida, increasing the protection that occurs than just taking folic acid supplements alone.


In a study 100mcg of cobalamin was administered along with their insulin injections on 15 people with Type 1 diabetes, suffering from Type 1 diabetes associated retinopathy. After one year, 7 of the patients reported that their retinopathy had disappeared. Another study found similar results.


Cobalamin deficiency


Low vitamin B12 levels are common in senior people because of reduced dietary intake and reduced absorption from the gut (malabsorption) linked with lower production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.


Lack of vitamin B12 can cause production of cells that are larger than normal. In the case of red blood cells, this leads to pernicious anaemia. Symptoms are often not noticed until later stages. People with auto-immune conditions such as Type 1 diabetes have a higher risk of developing pernicious anaemia.


Vitamin B12 is needed for healthy nerve function. B12 deficiency can damage nerves in the spinal cord, leading to a condition known as sub-acute combined degeneration of the cord.


Because symptoms are so variable, vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in all spinal cord, nerve and psychiatric disorders. People lacking cobalamin do not develop obvious symptoms until several years later.


Cobalamin is needed to make antibodies after vaccination or infections and, in people who are HIV positive, those with higher levels of B12 seem to develop AIDS slower than those with insufficient levels.


Other B12 deficiency symptoms include:


• Smooth, sore tongue

• Tiredness

• Exhaustion

• Menstrual disorders

• Numbness

• Tingling sensations

• Trembling

• Clumsiness

• Difficulty walking

• Poor memory

• Unable to concentrate

• Confusion

• Depression


Sources of Cobalamin


• Liver

• Oily fish

• Kidney

• Red meat

• White fish

• Eggs

• Dairy products

• Blue-green algae

• Fortified foods


How much do I need?


Children


Infants 0-6 months: 400mcg

Infants 7-12 months: 500mcg

Children 1-3 years: 900mcg

Children 4-8 years: 1.2mg

Children 9-13 years: 1.8mg


Males


Males 14 and above: 2.4mg


Females


Females 14 and above: 2.4mg

Pregnant females: 2.6mg

Breast-feeding females: 2.8mg


Side Effects


There is no known toxic side effects of high cobalamin doses, however itchy rashes and diarrhoea have been reported.




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